مقاله ۸، دوره ۲، شماره ۲ و ۳، بهار و تابستان ۱۳۹۴، صفحه ۱۳۵-۱۵۴  [عکس: xml1.png] اصل مقاله (۶۸۴ K)
نوع مقاله: علمی – پژوهشی
شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): JQCLCS-201509-1050 (R2)
نویسنده
سید هادی محمودی [عکس: mail.gif]
استادیار دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی
چکیده
یکی از چالش های پیش روی هوانوردی، مسأله هواپیماربایی و نحوه مقابله با آن است. در یک چارچوب گسترده، یک اقدام متمرکز برای مقابله با هواپیما ربایی در پایان دهه ۶۰ آغاز شد. این موضوع به طور جزیی در کنوانسیون ۱۹۶۹ توکیو درج شد لیکن به دلیل اهمیت آن به طور جداگانه در یک سند معاهداتی مستقل با عنوان کنوانسیون مقابله با تصرف غیر قانونی هواپیما موسوم به کنوانسیون لاهه ۱۹۷۰ مطرح شد. این سند معاهداتی، بر یک جرم مشخص، یعنی تصرف غیر قانونی هواپیما در هوانوردی کشوری بین المللی متمرکز است. به باور نگارنده کنوانسیون لاهه، به هدف اولیه خود دست یافت و بلافاصله یه یکی از مقبول ترین اسناد بین المللی مقابله با تروریسم در هوانوردی تبدیل شد. با وجود این، تحولات پس از یازده سپتامبر و بروز چالش های حقوقی جدید، سبب شد تا در ۲۰۱۰ در کنفرانسی که در پکن تشکیل شد، دو سند بین المللی جدید معرفی و به تصویب برسد. یکی از این اسناد پروتکل ۲۰۱۰ پکن بود که کنوانسیون لاهه ۱۹۷۰ را تکمیل نمود و به شیوه های مختلف این کنوانسیون را تقویت نموده است. نوشتار کنونی به مهمترین جنبه های به روز شده مقررات بین المللی حاکم بر مقابله با پدیده هواپیماربایی در پرتو این اسناد می پردازد.
کلیدواژه ها
امنیت هوانوردی؛ هواپیماربایی؛ کنوانسیون لاهه؛ جرم انگاری؛ پروتکل پکن؛ صلاحیت
عنوان مقاله [English]
Legal Aspects of Suppression of Hijacking in the Light of 11th September Legal Developments
نویسندگان [English]
Mahmoudi Seyed Hadi

چکیده [English]
One of the challenges facing the aviation is the problem of unlawful seizure of aircraft or what the most people say “hijacking” and how to deal with it. In a broader framework, a focused action to deal with the hijacking began at the end of the 60s. It was partly considered in the first aviation security treaty known as Tokyo Convention of 1963. However, due to the importance of suppression of hijacking, it was separately focused in an independent document called Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft known as the Hague Convention 1970. This convention has concentrated on the hijacking in international civil aviation. The author believes that the Hague Convention has achieved its primary goal and somehow as one of the most widely accepted treaties for the suppression of terrorism was successful. However, developments after September eleven which posed new challenges inter alia for aviation, led to a conference in Beijing in 2010 and two new international documents were adopted. One of these documents is the Beijing protocol 2010 which supplements the Hague Convention 1970 and in many ways has strengthened the Convention. Current research is focused on the most important aspects of the updated international rules governing the phenomenon of hijackings in the light of the documents concerned.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Aviation Security, Hijacking, The Hague Convention, Criminalization, The Beijing Protocol, Jurisdiction

مراجع

منابع
الف) فارسی

  1. جباری، منصور (۱۳۸۱)، حقوق بین‌الملل هوایی، انتشارات فروزش.
  2. ———– (۱۳۹۳)، حقوق هوایی از منظر حقوق داخلی و بین‌الملل، شهردانش.
  3. محمودی، سید هادی؛ گلرو، علی اکبر( ۱۳۸۴)، بررسی ابعاد حقوقی استانداردهای و رویه‌های پیشنهادی مصوب ایکائو، سومین همایش ایمنی هوانوردی، تهران، پژوهشگاه هوافضا، هواپیمایی جمهوری اسلامی ایران (هما)

http://www.civilica.com/Paper-ASC03-ASC03_021.html

  1. قانون هواپیمایی کشوری مصوب۲۸/۰۴/ ۱۳۲۸ با اصلاحات بعدی،
Books and Articles

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Documents

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  2. Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, done at Rome on 10 March 1988. (Deposited with the Secretary-General of the International Maritime Organization) https://treaties.un.org/doc/db/Terrorism…nglish.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
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  4. CONVENTION on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation Done at Beijing on 10 September 2010. At: http://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/Do…_multi.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  5. ICAO Annex 17: Security : Safeguarding International Civil Aviation Against Acts of Unlawful Interference. Available at: http://www.icao.int/Security/SFP/Pages/Annex17.aspx (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  6. ICAO, Working Paper No. A36-WP/12, Aug. 14, 2007)
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  10. Montreal Convention (1988) [.pdf] – Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation Montreal, February 24, 1988 available at: https://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/files/iasl/montreal1988.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  11. Montreal Convention (1991) [.pdf] – Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purposeof Detection
    Montreal, February 24, 1988 at: https://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/files/iasl/montreal1991.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  12. PROTOCOL SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE CONVENTION FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL SEIZURE OF AIRCRAFT. At: http://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/Do…_multi.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  13. Protocol to Amend the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, Done at Montreal on 4 April 2014. At: http://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/Do…ole_mu.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  14. Res. A33-1 ICAO, Declaration on misuse of civil aircraft as weapons of destruction and other terrorist acts involving civil aviation, available at: http://www.icao.int/Security/isd/Documen…-17_en.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  15. Res. A37-17 ICAO, Consolidated statement on the continuing ICAO policies related to the safeguarding of international civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference available at: http://www.icao.int/Security/isd/Documen…-17_en.pdf(last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  16. S/RES/286, The situation created by increasing incidents involving the hijacking of commercial aircraft, 1970.
  17. The Hague Convention [.pdf] – Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft The Hague, December 16, 1970 at: https://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/files/iasl/hague1970.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  18. The Universal Security Audit Programme Continuous Monitoring Approach (USAP-CMA) and its Objective available at: http://www.icao.int/security/usap/Pages/default.aspx(last Accessed: 15.June.2015)
  19. Tokyo Convention [.pdf] – Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft
    Tokyo, September 14, 1963 at: https://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/files/iasl/tokyo1963.pdf (last Accessed: 15.June.2015).